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Philadelphia chromosome/BCR-ABL1 positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) can be successfully treated with Glivec (Imatinib), which is available free of cost through the Glivec International Patient Assistance programme (GIPAP) to patients with proven CML without means to pay for the drug. We review the acquired mutations in the tyrosine kinase encoded by the BCR-ABL1 gene underlying Glivec failure or resistance in a cohort of 388 imatinib-treated CML patients (149 Female and 239 male) registered between February 2003 and June 2016 in Nepal. Forty-five patients (11 female 34 male) were studied; 18 different BCR-ABL1 mutations were seen in 33 patients. P-loop mutation, Kinase domain and A-loop mutations were seen in 9, 16 and 4 patients respectively. Other mutations were seen in five patients. A T315I mutation was the most common mutation, followed by F359V and M244V. Sixteen mutations showed intermediate activity to complete resistance to Glivec. Among the 45 patients evaluated for BCR-ABL1 mutations, 4 were lost to follow-up, 14 died and 27 are still alive. Among the surviving patients, 16 are receiving Nilotinib, 5 Dasatinib and 3 Ponatinib, while 3 patients were referred to India, one of who received allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Understanding the spectrum of further acquired mutations in BCR-ABL1 may help to choose more specific targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors that can be provided by GIPAP.

Original publication




Journal article


British journal of haematology

Publication Date





1000 - 1007


Patan Academy of Health Science, Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.


Humans, Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl, Antineoplastic Agents, Retrospective Studies, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Mutation, Female, Male, Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive, Imatinib Mesylate