Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM) are risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, which disproportionately affect South Asian populations. This study aims to investigate the humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in adult COVID-19 survivors with obesity and DM in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were investigated in 63 healthy and 75 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 recovered individuals in Bangladesh, during the pre-vaccination first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. In COVID-19 survivors, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced robust antibody and T cell responses, which correlated with disease severity. After adjusting for age, sex, DM status, disease severity, and time since onset of symptoms, obesity was associated with decreased neutralising antibody titers, and increased SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IFN-γ response along with increased proliferation and IL-2 production by CD8+ T cells. In contrast, DM was not associated with SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses after adjustment for obesity and other confounders. Obesity is associated with lower neutralising antibody levels and higher T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 post COVID-19 recovery, while antibody or T cell responses remain unaltered in DM.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Exp Immunol

Publication Date



COVID-19, Obesity, T-cell, antibody, diabetes mellitus