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Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent pathogen causing zoonotic infections with significant public health implications. Yet, our understanding of long-term consequences, associated risk factors, and the potential role of co-infections is still limited. Seroepidemiological studies are a valuable approach to address open questions and enhance our insights into T. gondii across human populations. Here, we present substantial advancements to our previously developed T. gondii multiplex serology assay, which is based on the immunodominant antigens SAG1 and P22. While our previous bead-based assay quantified antibody levels against multiple targets in a high-throughput fashion requiring only a small sample volume, impaired assay characteristics emerged in sample dilutions beyond 1:100 and when being transferred to magnetic beads. Both are now critical for inclusion in large-scale seroprevalence studies. Using the truncated versions, SAG1D1 and P22trunc, significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratios were achieved with almost perfect concordance with the gold-standard Sabin-Feldman dye test. In sample dilutions of 1:100, the diagnostic accuracy of SAG1D1 and P22trunc reached sensitivities (true positive rates) of 98% and 94% and specificities (true negative rates) of 93% and 95%, respectively. Importantly, performance metrics were reproducible in a 1:1,000 sample dilution, using both magnetic and nonmagnetic beads. Thresholds for seropositivity were derived from finite mixture models and performed equally well as thresholds by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Our improved multiplex serology assay is therefore able to generate robust and reproducible performance metrics under various assay conditions. Inclusion of T. gondii antibody measurements with other pathogens, in multiplex serology panels will allow for large-scale seroepidemiological research.IMPORTANCEToxoplasma gondii is a pathogen of significant public health concern due to its widespread prevalence and zoonotic potential. However, our understanding of key aspects, such as risk factors for infection and disease, potential outcomes, and their trends, remains limited. Seroepidemiological studies in large cohorts are invaluable for addressing these questions but remain scarce. Our revised multiplex serology assay equips researchers with a powerful tool capable of delivering T. gondii serum antibody measurements with high sensitivity and specificity under diverse assay conditions. This advancement paves the way for the integration of T. gondii antibody measurements into multi-pathogen multiplex serology panels, promising valuable insights into public health and pathogen interactions.

Original publication




Journal article


Microbiol Spectr

Publication Date



Toxoplasma gondii, high-throughput serology, multiplex serology, public health, seroepidemiology