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Earlier meetings laid the foundations for Controlled Human Infection Models (CHIMs), also known as human challenge studies and human infection studies, including Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) production of the challenge agent, CHIM ethics, environmental safety in CHIM, recruitment, community engagement, advertising and incentives, pre-existing immunity, and clinical, immunological, and microbiological endpoints. The fourth CHIM meeting focused on CHIM studies being conducted in endemic countries. Over the last ten years we have seen a vast expansion of the number of countries in Africa performing CHIM studies, as well as a growing number of different challenge organisms being used. Community and public engagement with assiduous ethical and regulatory oversight has been central to successful introductions and should be continued, in more community-led or community-driven models. Valuable initiatives for regulation of CHIMs have been undertaken but further capacity building remains essential.

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Journal article



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Deliberate infection, Endemic diseases, Human challenge, Human infection studies, Infectious diseases, Low- and middle-income countries, Vaccine