Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Well-recognized medical threats at high altitude (>2,500 m) include acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Thousands of travelers in the Himalayas are exposed annually to these often life-threatening syndromes. Their recognition and treatment has advanced considerably in recent years. In the Himalayas, we frequently see acute medical problems outside the setting of AMS and the two types of altitude edemas. Many of these other conditions are also hypoxia related and sometimes may mimic the classic high altitude illnesses of AMS, HAPE, and HACE. Although the vast majority of these medical problems are neurological, pulmonary and other organ system dysfunction also occur. These "non-high altitude sickness" disease entities in persons who sojourn to remote mountainous environments are reviewed in this paper to enhance their recognition, diagnosis, and treatment.

Original publication




Journal article


High Alt Med Biol

Publication Date





167 - 174


Acute Disease, Altitude Sickness, Emergency Treatment, Humans, Mountaineering, Nepal