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OBJECTIVE: Evidence for effective management of shoulder impingement is limited. The present study aimed to quantify the clinical, neurophysiological, and biomechanical effects of a scapular motor control retraining for young individuals with shoulder impingement signs. METHOD: Sixteen adults with shoulder impingement signs (mean age 22 ± 1.6 years) underwent the intervention and 16 healthy participants (24.8 ± 3.1years) provided reference data. Shoulder function and pain were assessed using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and other questionnaires. Electromyography (EMG) and 3-dimensional motion analysis was used to record muscle activation and kinematic data during arm elevation to 90° and lowering in 3 planes. Patients were assessed pre and post a 10-week motor control based intervention, utilizing scapular orientation retraining. RESULTS: Pre-intervention, patients reported pain and reduced function compared to the healthy participants (SPADI in patients 20 ± 9.2; healthy 0 ± 0). Post-intervention, the SPADI scores reduced significantly (P 

Original publication




Journal article


J Shoulder Elbow Surg

Publication Date





e11 - e19


Adolescent, Adult, Arthralgia, Biomechanical Phenomena, Exercise Therapy, Female, Humans, Male, Muscle, Skeletal, Scapula, Shoulder Impingement Syndrome, Young Adult