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The quality of parenting program implementation significantly affects the extent to which a program is delivered effectively as well as the likelihood of it becoming embedded in everyday services. The group based Parenting for Lifelong Health for Young Children (PLH-YC) program for parents of children aged 2-9 years was developed specifically for implementation in low- and middle-income contexts, has been tested in five randomized trials, and incorporates a number of strategies to encourage fidelity of delivery. This paper reports on the introduction of PLH-YC to Montenegro, including initial work to engage government agencies and service providers, adapt the program and, following initial evidence of effectiveness, implement strategies to promote effective delivery and embed the program. Following program adaptation and initial facilitator training, eight groups were run, supported with resources and supervision and independently evaluated. The successful pilot led to program training accreditation by national professional agencies and a series of steps to successfully further embed it into routine settings in Montenegro, including by recognizing the program in national policy documents. This led to further facilitator trainings, now numbering 97 facilitators and the certification of ten coaches and two trainers. By the end of 2023, 1278 parents, across 13 municipalities (half of all municipalities in Montenegro) and a range of service providers, have received the program. The paper describes the project phases and key fidelity components that underpinned the successful introduction and embedding of the program in Montenegro. The plan has resulted in Montenegro having its own domestic resources to continue to implement the program effectively and further plan for widespread dissemination.

Original publication




Journal article


Prev Sci

Publication Date



Child maltreatment, Implementation, Parent training, Prevention