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INTRODUCTION: Digital Health Technologies (DHTs) have been shown to have variable usability as measured by efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction despite large-scale government projects to regulate and standardise user interface (UI) design. We hypothesised that Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) modelling could improve the methodology for DHT design and regulation, and support the creation of future evidence-based UI standards and guidelines for DHTs. METHODOLOGY: Using a Design Science Research (DSR) framework, we developed novel UI components that adhered to existing standards and guidelines (combining the NHS Common User Interface (CUI) standard and the NHS Design System). We firstly evaluated the Patient Banner UI component for compliance with the two guidelines and then used HCI-modelling to evaluate the "Add New Patient" workflow to measure time to task completion and cognitive load. RESULTS: Combining the two guidelines to produce new UI elements is technically feasible for the Patient Banner and the Patient Name Input components. There are some inconsistencies between the NHS Design System and the NHS CUI when implementing the Patient Banner. HCI-modelling successfully quantified challenges adhering to the NHS CUI and the NHS Design system for the "Add New Patient" workflow. DISCUSSION: We successfully developed new design artefacts combing two major design guidelines for DHTs. By quantifying usability issues using HCI-modelling, we have demonstrated the feasibility of a methodology that combines HCI-modelling into a human-centred design (HCD) process could enable the development of standardised UI elements for DHTs that is more scientifically robust than HCD alone. CONCLUSION: Combining HCI-modelling and Human-Centred Design could improve the scientific progress towards developing safer and more user-friendly DHTs.

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Journal article



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Cogulator, Common user interface, Digital health technologies, GOMS, HCI, Human-computer interaction, Modelling, NHS design system, Usability