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BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at a high-risk of developing AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs). This review is aimed at exploring available evidence regarding the trends of ADCs and NADCs and the associated risk factors among adult PLHIV. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO host databases to identify articles published between 2010 and 2023 that reported incidence and mortality rates of cancer, including ADCs and NADCs among PLHIV. We compared trends and rates in PLHIV with HIV-negative adults and further assessed related risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1886 potentially eligible articles were screened, and of these, 36 were included in this study. More than 50% (n = 20) of these were based in high-income countries. Seventeen studies reported a higher prevalence of NADCs compared to ADCs, with twelve of these conducted in high-income countries. Conversely, eight out of twelve studies reporting a higher prevalence of ADCs versus NADCs were from low-and-middle and upper-middle-income countries. Ten studies indicated a higher incidence of ADCs (6 studies) and NADCs (4 studies) among PLHIV compared to HIV-negative individuals. In contrast, only two studies observed an increase in NADCs among the HIV-negative population. In comparing mortality, seven out of nine studies showed elevated NADC-related deaths compared to ADCs. The main risk factors identified for any cancer, NADCs, and related mortality were advancing age, and longer duration of HIV infection, while lower CD4 cell counts (<200 cells/μl), was associated with both ADC and NADC occurrences. CONCLUSION: Chronic HIV infection combined with advancing age in PLHIV taking antiretroviral therapy appears to have contributed to increasing cancer burden, particularly the incidence of NADCs and associated mortality. These findings stress the importance of screening for high-risk cancers among PLHIV for early detection and treatment to ensure improved outcomes.

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Journal article


J Cancer Epidemiol

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