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Brain-Computer Interfaces – BCIs – are a set of technologies with which brains and computers can communicate directly, without the need for manual interaction. As we are witnessing the dawn of an era in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) quite possibly will come to dominate the technological innovation landscape, we are compelled to ask questions about the ethical issues which the convergence of BCIs and AI is poised to bring about. What are the ethics of thinking with machines? In this paper, we explore this question, focusing on some of the main arenas of ethical debate and contention, ranging from autonomy and integrity to identity and privacy, and discuss the risks and potential benefits of the technology in the domains of paediatric populations, and as a means of human enhancement. We conclude that, while there are multiple concerns as well as possibilities for the technology to do good, there are great uncertainties at play. If bioethicists want to stay relevant in this field, they ought to prepare themselves for seismic shift in how we conceptualise much of what we take to be core values in medicine and healthcare. 腦機介面 (BCIs) 是大腦和電腦無需人工交互即可直接交流的一系列技術。隨著人工智能 (AI) 時代的到來,我們需要更多地關注腦機介面和人工智能的融合所帶來的倫理問題。那麼,與機器一起思考會帶來什麼樣的倫理問題?在本文中,圍繞這一主題,我們將重點關注以下問題:自主性、完整性、身分認同、隱私,以及作為一種增強的方式,該技術在兒科領域的應用會帶來怎樣的風險和潛在收益。我們的結論是,雖然該技術存在多種令人擔憂的問題,同時也有可能帶來好處,但仍存在很大的不確定性。如果生命倫理學家想在這一領域有所建樹,他們就應該做好準備來迎接我們對醫學和醫療保健領域中一些我們視為核心價值的理解的重大轉變。

Original publication




Journal article


International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine


Centre for Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist University

Publication Date





11 - 34


challenge, 倫理, ethics, 腦機介面, 人工智能, brain-computer interfaces, artificial intelligence, 挑戰