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BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is difficult to diagnose. We investigated whether a 3-gene host response signature in blood can distinguish TBM from other brain infections. METHODS: The expression of 3 genes (Dual specificity phosphatase 3- DUSP3, Guanylate-binding protein- GBP5, Krupple-like factor 2- KLF2) was analysed by RNA sequencing of archived whole blood from four cohorts of Vietnamese adults: 281 with TBM; 279 with pulmonary tuberculosis; 50 with other brain infections; and 30 healthy controls. 'TB scores' (combined 3-gene expression) were calculated following published methodology and discriminatory performance compared using area under a receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: GBP5 was upregulated in TBM compared to other brain infections (p 

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date



3 gene host response, HIV co-infection, brain infections, diagnosis, tuberculous meningitis