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BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic inflammatory disease that affects 10% of women during the reproductive ages. Despite the estimated 50% heritability for the condition, only 26% was associated with common genetic variants. Thus, necessity of identifying rare variants for the missing heritability is implicated in the literature. Therefore, our study aimed to identify novel rare genetic variants involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis utilizing a family of multiple affected members. METHODS: A family composed of four affected women along with their two unaffected mothers were recruited at a single gynecology and infertility clinic specialized in endometriosis. All patients presented with endometriomas, which was visualized by transvaginal ultrasonography. Two affected individuals had received laparoscopic endometrioma excision and therefore were diagnosed with recurrent disease. One mother had a history of endometrial serous adenocarcinoma (ESC) for which she underwent hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy. Three endometriosis cases were whole exome sequenced on Illumina NextSeq 550 platform with an average of 90% coverage. Candidate genes were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and followed-up with family segregation. RESULTS: Novel rare variants were identified in TNFRSF1B (NM_001066.3: c.1072G>A, p.(Ala358Thr)) and GEN1 (NM_001130009.3: c.1574C>T, p.(Ser525Leu)) as possible genetic causes of endometriosis. A third novel rare variant was identified in CRABP1 (NM_004378.3:c.54G>C, p.(Glu18Asp)) only on the mother with ESC history and her daughters. CONCLUSION: Novel candidate genetic variants that might contribute to endometriosis were suggested that need replication through independent cohorts or validation by functional studies. The family has also received genetic counseling and that the affected daughters are on clinical follow-up, accordingly.

Original publication




Journal article


Mol Genet Genomic Med

Publication Date





endometrial serous adenocarcinoma, endometriosis, family, novel genetic variants, whole exome sequencing, Humans, Female, Endometriosis, Exome Sequencing, Exome