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This chapter considers the main viral and atypical bacterial causes of acute respiratory infectious disease with particular concern for the low- and middle-income settings. The chapter covers endemic and zoonotic pathogens, with an overview of the wide breadth of aetiological agents, the distinctive clinical syndromes, particularly pneumonia and bronchiolitis, co-infections, and the characteristic patterns of distribution in the host population, i.e. temporal spatial and age-related. It also describes methods of diagnosis, what treatments are available, and what measures are for prevention. We hope to convey something of the awesome nature of these respiratory pathogens, the magnitude of the burden on human health, their remarkable diversity in aetiology, origin and transmission, and the potential and challenges for control and prevention.

Original publication





Book title

Manson's Tropical Diseases, Fourth Edition

Publication Date



254 - 267