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Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infection is a growing and potent concern, and combating it will be necessary to achieve the WHO's goal of a 95% reduction in TB deaths by 2035. While prior studies have explored the evolution and spread of drug resistance, we still lack a clear understanding of the fitness costs (if any) imposed by resistance-conferring mutations and the role that Mtb genetic lineage plays in determining the likelihood of resistance evolution. This study offers insight into these questions by assessing the dynamics of resistance evolution in a high-burden Southeast Asian setting with a diverse lineage composition. It demonstrates that there are clear lineage-specific differences in the dynamics of resistance acquisition and transmission and shows that different lineages evolve resistance via characteristic mutational pathways.

Original publication




Journal article


Microbiol Spectr

Publication Date



Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antimicrobial resistance, pathogen genomics