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Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is essential to improve the reliability of machine learning models by detecting samples that do not belong to the training distribution. Detecting OOD samples effectively in certain tasks can pose a challenge because of the substantial heterogeneity within the in-distribution (ID), and the high structural similarity between ID and OOD classes. For instance, when detecting heart views in fetal ultrasound videos there is a high structural similarity between the heart and other anatomies such as the abdomen, and large in-distribution variance as a heart has 5 distinct views and structural variations within each view. To detect OOD samples in this context, the resulting model should generalise to the intra-anatomy variations while rejecting similar OOD samples. In this paper, we introduce dual-conditioned diffusion models (DCDM) where we condition the model on in-distribution class information and latent features of the input image for reconstruction-based OOD detection. This constrains the generative manifold of the model to generate images structurally and semantically similar to those within the in-distribution. The proposed model outperforms reference methods with a 12% improvement in accuracy, 22% higher precision, and an 8% better F1 score.

Original publication




Conference paper

Publication Date



14220 LNCS


216 - 226