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The success of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination program largely depends on cost-effective vector control measures. Our goal was to investigate the longevity of the efficacy of insecticidal wall painting (IWP), a new vector control tool, compared with a routine indoor residual spraying (IRS) program for reducing the VL vector density in Bangladesh. This study is the extension of our recent IWP study for VL vector management in Bangladesh, which was undertaken in seven highly VL endemic villages of the Mymensingh district with a 12-month follow-up. In this 24-months follow-up study, we collected sand flies additionally at 15, 18, 21, and 24 months since the interventions from the IWP and control (where the program did routine IRS) clusters to examine the longevity of the efficacy of IWP on sand fly density reduction and mortality. The difference-in-differences regression models were used to estimate the effect of IWP on sand fly reduction against Program IRS. The IWP showed excellent performance in reducing sand fly density and increasing sand fly mortality compared with Program IRS. The effect of IWP for controlling sand flies was statistically significant for up to at least 24 months. The mean female Phlebotomus argentipes density reduction ranged from -56% to -83%, and the P. argentipes sand fly mortality ranged from 81% to 99.5% during the 24-month follow-up period. Considering the duration of the efficacy of IWP for controlling VL vectors, Bangladesh National Kala-azar Elimination Program may consider IWP as the best alternative to IRS for the subsequent phases of the program.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Trop Med Hyg

Publication Date





1022 - 1027


Animals, Female, Insecticides, Leishmaniasis, Visceral, Insect Control, Bangladesh, Follow-Up Studies, Insect Vectors, Phlebotomus, Psychodidae, India