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The promotion of anti-tumour immune responses can be an effective route to the complete remission of primary and metastatic tumours in a small proportion of patients. Hence, researchers are currently investigating various methods to further characterise and enhance such responses to achieve a beneficial impact across a wider range of patients. Due to its non-invasive, non-ionising, and targetable nature, the application of ultrasound-mediated cavitation has proven to be a popular method to enhance the delivery and activity of immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, to optimise this approach, it is important to understand the biological and physical mechanisms by which cavitation may promote anti-tumour immune responses. Here, the published literature relating to the role that cavitation may play in modulating anti-tumour immunity is therefore assessed.

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cancer, cavitation, checkpoint inhibitor, immunotherapy, ultrasound