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In recent years, non-contact infrared thermometers (NCITs) and infrared thermography (IRT) have gained prominence as convenient, non-invasive tools for human body temperature measurement. Despite their widespread adoption in a range of settings, there remain questions about their accuracy under varying conditions. This systematic review sought to critically evaluate the performance of NCITs and IRT in body temperature monitoring, synthesizing evidence from a total of 72 unique settings from 32 studies. The studies incorporated in our review ranged from climate-controlled room investigations to clinical applications. Our primary findings showed that NCITs and IRT can provide accurate and reliable body temperature measurements in specific settings and conditions. We revealed that while both NCITs and IRT displayed a consistent positive correlation with conventional, contact-based temperature measurement tools, NCITs demonstrated slightly superior accuracy over IRT. A total of 29 of 50 settings from NCIT studies and 4 of 22 settings from IRT studies achieved accuracy levels within a range of ±0.3 °C. Furthermore, we found that several factors influenced the performance of these devices. These included the measurement location, the type of sensor, the reference and tool, individual physiological attributes, and the surrounding environmental conditions. Our research underscores the critical need for further studies in this area to refine our understanding of these influential factors and to develop standardized guidelines for the use of NCITs and IRT.

Original publication




Journal article





Publication Date





7439 - 7439