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Brief tools are necessary to identify adolescents at greatest risk for ART non-adherence. From the WHO's HEADSS/HEADSS+ adolescent wellbeing checklists, we identify constructs strongly associated with non-adherence (validated with viral load). We conducted interviews and collected clinical records from a 3-year cohort of 1046 adolescents living with HIV from 52 South African government facilities. We used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator variable selection approach with a generalized linear mixed model. HEADSS constructs most predictive were: violence exposure (aOR 1.97, CI 1.61; 2.42, p 

Original publication




Journal article


AIDS Behav

Publication Date



AIDS, Adolescents, HIV, Health personnel, Mental health, Treatment