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BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prescribing practices are 1 of the contributing causes of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The study explored the key drivers and barriers to adherence to prescribing instructions among healthcare workers and outpatient attendees with the aim of developing a training and communication intervention to improve adherence to prescription. METHODS: Prior to randomized trials at 3 health centers in Uganda (Aduku, Kihihi, and Nagongera), a pre-intervention qualitative assessment was conducted to explore behavioral drivers for adherence to prescriptions and the communication of adherence messages. Based on the findings, a training and communication package was developed for healthcare workers and patients at Day 0 of the trial. During the trial's Day 7 patient follow-up, in-depth interviews were conducted to further investigate adherence behaviors. RESULTS: Five main themes were identified that acted as drivers or barriers to prescription adherence. Key drivers included: drug availability at health facility, health worker knowledge, and communication to patients. Barriers included: care-seeker use of treatment resorts and an inability by care-seeker to buy drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The T&C appeared to influence both health workers' and patients' behavior and improve adherence to prescription.The adapted T&C should be considered a toolkit to improve antibiotic use across health facilities accompanied with appropriate guidelines to mitigate AMR.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Infect Dis

Publication Date





S191 - S198


acute febrile illness, antimicrobial resistance, prescription adherence behavior, prescription adherence communication, Humans, Outpatients, Uganda, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Prescriptions, Health Personnel, Health Facilities