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OBJECTIVES: To identify and summarize existing global knowledge gaps on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in human health, focusing on the World Health Organization (WHO) bacterial priority pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and selected fungi. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of gray and peer-reviewed literature, published in English from January 2012 through December 2021, that reported on the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care of drug-resistant infections. We extracted relevant knowledge gaps and, through an iterative process, consolidated those into thematic research questions. RESULTS: Of 8409 publications screened, 1156 were included, including 225 (19.5%) from low- and middle-income countries. A total of 2340 knowledge gaps were extracted, in the following areas: antimicrobial research and development, AMR burden and drivers, resistant tuberculosis, antimicrobial stewardship, diagnostics, infection prevention and control, antimicrobial consumption and use data, immunization, sexually transmitted infections, AMR awareness and education, policies and regulations, fungi, water sanitation and hygiene, and foodborne diseases. The knowledge gaps were consolidated into 177 research questions, including 78 (44.1%) specifically relevant to low- and middle-income countries and 65 (36.7%) targeting vulnerable populations. CONCLUSION: This scoping review presents the most comprehensive compilation of AMR-related knowledge gaps to date, informing a priority-setting exercise to develop the WHO Global AMR Research Agenda for the human health sector.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Infect Dis

Publication Date





142 - 149


Antimicrobial resistance, Bacteria, Fungi, Knowledge gaps, Scoping review, Tuberculosis