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Household air pollution (HAP) is associated with the development of lung cancer, yet few studies investigated the exposure patterns and joint associations with tobacco smoking. In our study, we included 224 189 urban participants from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), 3288 of which diagnosed with lung cancer during the follow-up. Exposure to four HAP sources (solid fuels for cooking/heating/stove and environmental tobacco smoke exposure) was assessed at baseline. Distinct HAP patterns and their associations with lung cancer were examined through latent class analysis (LCA) and multivariable Cox regression. A total of 76.1% of the participants reported regular cooking and 52.2% reported winter heating, of which 9% and 24.7% used solid fuels, respectively. Solid fuel heating increased lung cancer risk (Hazards ratio [HR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.46). LCA identified three HAP patterns; the "clean fuel cooking and solid fuel heating" pattern significantly increased lung cancer risk (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41), compared to low HAP pattern. An additive interaction was observed between heavy smoking and "clean fuel cooking and solid fuel heating" (relative excess risk [RERI]: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.29-2.47, attributable proportion [AP]: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.36). Cases resulting from solid fuel account for ~4% of total cases (population attribute fraction [PAF]overall : 4.31%, 95% CI: 2.16%-6.47%, PAFever smokers : 4.38%, 95% CI: 1.54%-7.23%). Our results suggest that in urban China, solid fuel heating increased the risk of lung cancer, particularly among heavy smokers. The whole population could benefit from cleaner indoor air quality by reducing using solid fuels, especially smokers.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Cancer

Publication Date



additive interaction, household air pollution, lung cancer, solid fuel