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Integral projection models (IPMs) allow projecting the behaviour of a population over time using information on the vital processes of individuals, their state, and that of the environment they inhabit. As with matrix population models (MPMs), time is treated as a discrete variable, but in IPMs, state and environmental variables are continuous and are related to the vital rates via generalised linear models. Vital rates in turn integrate into the population dynamics in a mechanistic way. This chapter provides a brief description of the logic behind IPMs and their construction, and, because they share many of the analyses developed for MPMs, it only emphasises how perturbation analyses can be performed with respect to different model elements. The chapter exemplifies the construction of a simple and a more complex IPM structure with an animal and a plant case study, respectively. Finally, inverse modelling in IPMs is presented, a method that allows population projection when some vital rates are not observed.

Original publication





Book title

Demographic Methods across the Tree of Life

Publication Date



181 - 195