Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Chronic traumatic brain injury occurs in approximately 20 per cent of professional boxers.1 Boxers with brain injury have varying degrees of movement, intellectual, and/or behavioral impairments. ‘Dementia pugilistica’ is a form of severe dementia that resembles severe Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease. Chronic traumatic brain injury has also been documented in American Football, ice hockey, rugby, horse racing and soccer. It has been believed that this results from repetitive concussive and subconsive blows to the head and in boxers, is related to the number and severity of exposures to punches.2 Brain injury in boxers is related to the following factors: • increased exposure (i.e., duration of career, age of retirement, total number of bouts); • poor performance; • increased sparring.3

Original publication





Book title

Genetic Technology and Sport: Ethical Questions

Publication Date



136 - 146