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This Methodological Note presents the methodology and policies that underlie the changes over time in multidimensional poverty for 84 countries. 35 of the 84 countries have trends for three points in time; while poverty trends in 48 countries are based on two points in time. Gambia is the only country where we have presented results for four points in time. We also estimate how multidimensional poverty changed by four major age categories (0 to 9 years, 10 to 17 years, 18 to 59 years, and over 60 years) and by two age categories covering children aged 0 to 17 years and adults 18 years and older in all countries. Our results also show poverty trends by rural-urban area and by 810 subnational regions. We standardised and harmonised 205 survey datasets to estimate the changes in multidimensional poverty. Indicator standardisation is detailed in Alkire, Kanagaratnam and Suppa (2022b). This document, focused on harmonisation methodology and principles, is structured as follows. Section 2 presents the global MPI structure and indicator definitions. Section 3 provides an outline of the global MPI and its partial indices that we estimate and publish. Section 4 summarises the changes over time methodology. Section 5 provides a summary of the harmonised surveys. Section 6 outlines the principles and decisions that underlie our harmonisation work. Section 7 summarises the country-specific decisions that were applied for the datasets harmonised in this round. We conclude with brief reflections.


Working paper


Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI)

Publication Date



1 - 25

Total pages



global MPI, Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), poverty measurement