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BACKGROUND: Detection of acute and prevalent HIV infection using point-of-care nucleic acid amplification testing (POC-NAAT) among outpatients with symptoms compatible with acute HIV is critical to HIV prevention, but it is not clear if it is cost-effective compared with existing HIV testing strategies. METHODS: We developed and parametrised a decision tree to compare the cost-effectiveness of (1) provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) using rapid tests, the standard of care; (2) scaled-up provider-initiated testing and counselling (SU-PITC) in which all patients were tested with rapid tests unless they opted out; and (3) opt-out testing and counselling using POC-NAAT, which detects both acute and prevalent infection. The model-based analysis used data from the Tambua Mapema Plus randomised controlled trial of a POC-NAAT intervention in Kenya, supplemented with results from a stochastic, agent-based network model of HIV-1 transmission and data from published literature. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Kenyan government using a primary outcome of cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted over a 10-year time horizon. RESULTS: After analysing the decision-analytical model, the average per patient cost of POC-NAAT was $214.9 compared with $173.6 for SU-PITC and $47.3 for PITC. The mean DALYs accumulated per patient for POC-NAAT were 0.160 compared with 0.176 for SU-PITC and 0.214 for PITC. In the incremental analysis, SU-PITC was eliminated due to extended dominance, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) comparing POC-NAAT to PITC was $3098 per DALY averted. The ICER was sensitive to disability weights for HIV/AIDS and the costs of antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: POC-NAAT offered to adult outpatients in Kenya who present for care with symptoms compatible with AHI is cost-effective and should be considered for inclusion as the standard of HIV testing in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Tambua Mapema ("Discover Early") Plus study (NCT03508908) conducted in Kenya (2017-2020) i.e., Post-results.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open

Publication Date





HEALTH ECONOMICS, HIV & AIDS, Health economics, Health policy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Adult, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Delivery of Health Care, HIV Infections, Humans, Kenya, Nucleic Acids, Outpatients