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Nonlinear ultrasonic emissions produced during a therapeutic ultrasound procedure can be detected, localized, and quantified through a class of methods that can be referred to as Passive Acoustic Mapping (PAM). While a variety of PAM beamforming algorithms may be employed, they share a common limitation that a single sound speed is specified for both phase steering of array elements and for calculation of source power or energy. The specified value may be inadequate whether derived from B-mode-based metrics or literature values for constituent materials. This study employed experiments and simulations with linear and curvilinear array geometries to investigate the impact of in situ sound speed uncertainties on source localization in layered media. The data were also used to evaluate a new method for optimizing co-registration of PAM and B-mode images. Co-registration errors as large as 10 mm were observed with the curvilinear array, which also showed much greater sound speed sensitivity than the linear array. Errors with both array geometries were typically reduced to the order of 0.1 mm using the proposed optimization method regardless of beamformer choice or whether the array was calibrated. In a further step towards reliable implementation of PAM, the current work provides an approach which can help ensure that therapeutic ultrasound procedures are accurately guided by cavitation emissions.

Original publication




Journal article


IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control

Publication Date