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Plasmid-Mediated Colistin Resistance 1 (mcr-1) was first reported in 2015 and is a great concern to human health. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of mcr-1 and mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli (MCRPEC) and the association in infection status among various reservoirs connected to livestock. The study was conducted in 70 poultry and swine farms in a commune in Ha Nam province, northern Vietnam. Samples were collected from farmers, food animals, domestic animals, and farm environments (flies and wastewater) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for mcr-1 gene and species identification of PCR positive isolates. Among 379 obtained mcr-1 positives isolates, Escherichia coli was the major identified, varying from 50% (2/4) in dog feces to 100% (31/31) in humans feces isolates. The prevalence of MCRPEC was 14.4% (20/139), 49.7% (96/193), 31.3% (25/80), 36.7% (40/109), 26.9% (18/67), and 3.9% (2/51) in humans, chickens, pigs, flies, wastewater, and dogs, respectively. The study identified association between MCRPEC infection status in humans and flies (OR = 3.4), between flies and chickens (OR = 5.3), and between flies and pigs (OR = 9.0). Farmers' age and farm livestock unit were also associated factors of MCRPEC infection status in humans (OR = 5.1 and 1.05, respectively). These findings bring new knowledge on antibiotic resistance in livestock setting and important suggestions on potential role of flies in the transmission of mcr-1 resistance gene.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Trop Med Hyg

Publication Date





65 - 71


Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Chickens, Colistin, Dogs, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Infections, Escherichia coli Proteins, Farms, Humans, Livestock, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Plasmids, Swine, Vietnam, Wastewater