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Type 2 immunity mediates the immune responses against parasites and allergic stimuli. Evidence from studies of cell lines and animals implies that neuromedin U (NmU) acts as a pro-inflammatory mediator of type 2 inflammation. However, the role of NmU in human type 2 immunity remains unclear. Here we investigated the expression of NmU in human blood and airways, and the expression of NmU receptors by human immune cells in blood and lung tissue. We detected human NmU (hNmU-25) in blood and airways with higher concentrations in the latter. NmU receptor 1 (NmUR1) was expressed by most human immune cells with higher levels in type 2 cells including type 2 T helpers, type 2 cytotoxic T cells, group-2 innate lymphoid cells and eosinophils, and was upregulated in lung-resident and activated type 2 cells. We also assessed the effects of NmU in these cells. hNmU-25 elicited type 2 cytokine production by type 2 lymphocytes and induced cell migration, including eosinophils. hNmU-25 also enhanced the type 2 immune response to other stimuli, particularly prostaglandin D2. These results indicate that NmU could contribute to the pathogenic processes of type 2 immunity-mediated diseases in humans via its pro-inflammatory effects on type 2 lymphocytes and eosinophils.

Original publication




Journal article


Mucosal Immunol

Publication Date





990 - 999


Eosinophils, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Neuropeptides, Peptide Hormones, T-Lymphocytes