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In tropical Africa, SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology is poorly described because of lack of access to testing and weak surveillance systems. Since April 2020, we followed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in plasma samples across the Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service. We developed an IgG ELISA against full length spike protein. Validated in locally-observed, PCR-positive COVID-19 cases and in pre-pandemic sera, sensitivity was 92.7% and specificity was 99.0%. Using sera from 9,922 donors, we estimated national seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at 4.3% in April-June 2020 and 9.1% in August-September 2020. Kenya’s second COVID-19 wave peaked in November 2020. Here we estimate national seroprevalence in early 2021. Between January 3 and March 15, 2021, we collected 3,062 samples from donors aged 16-64 years. Among 3,018 samples that met our study criteria, 1,333 were seropositive (crude seroprevalence 44.2%, 95% CI 42.4-46.0%). After Bayesian test-performance adjustment and population weighting to represent the national population distribution, the national estimate of seroprevalence was 48.5% (95% CI 45.2-52.1%). Seroprevalence varied little by age or sex but was higher in Nairobi (61.8%), the capital city, and lower in two rural regions. Almost half of Kenya’s adult donors had evidence of past SARS-CoV-2 infection by March 2021. Although high, the estimate is corroborated by other population-specific estimates in country. Between March and June, 2% of the population were vaccinated against COVID-19 and the country experienced a third epidemic wave. Natural infection is outpacing vaccine delivery substantially in Africa, and this reality needs to be considered as objectives of the vaccine programme are set.

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