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Endocrine resistance (EnR) in advanced prostate cancer is fatal. EnR can be mediated by androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, with AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7) arguably the most clinically important variant. In this study, we determined proteins key to generating AR-V7, validated our findings using clinical samples, and studied splicing regulatory mechanisms in prostate cancer models. Triangulation studies identified JMJD6 as a key regulator of AR-V7, as evidenced by its upregulation with in vitro EnR, its downregulation alongside AR-V7 by bromodomain inhibition, and its identification as a top hit of a targeted siRNA screen of spliceosome-related genes. JMJD6 protein levels increased (P < 0.001) with castration resistance and were associated with higher AR-V7 levels and shorter survival (P = 0.048). JMJD6 knockdown reduced prostate cancer cell growth, AR-V7 levels, and recruitment of U2AF65 to AR pre-mRNA. Mutagenesis studies suggested that JMJD6 activity is key to the generation of AR-V7, with the catalytic machinery residing within a druggable pocket. Taken together, these data highlight the relationship between JMJD6 and AR-V7 in advanced prostate cancer and support further evaluation of JMJD6 as a therapeutic target in this disease. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies JMJD6 as being critical for the generation of AR-V7 in prostate cancer, where it may serve as a tractable target for therapeutic intervention.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancer Res

Publication Date





1087 - 1100


Alternative Splicing, Antineoplastic Agents, Cell Line, Tumor, Cohort Studies, Enzyme Inhibitors, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases, Male, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Oxygenases, Prognosis, Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant, Protein Isoforms, Receptors, Androgen, Retrospective Studies