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INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), currently marketed for type 2 diabetes and obesity, may offer novel mechanisms to delay or prevent neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The impact of semaglutide in amyloid positivity (ISAP) trial is investigating whether the GLP-1 RA semaglutide reduces accumulation in the brain of cortical tau protein and neuroinflammation in individuals with preclinical/prodromal AD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: ISAP is an investigator-led, randomised, double-blind, superiority trial of oral semaglutide compared with placebo. Up to 88 individuals aged ≥55 years with brain amyloid positivity as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) or cerebrospinal fluid, and no or mild cognitive impairment, will be randomised. People with the low-affinity binding variant of the rs6971 allele of the Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) gene, which can interfere with interpreting TSPO PET scans (a measure of neuroinflammation), will be excluded.At baseline, participants undergo tau, TSPO PET and MRI scanning, and provide data on physical activity and cognition. Eligible individuals are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to once-daily oral semaglutide or placebo, starting at 3 mg and up-titrating to 14 mg over 8 weeks. They will attend safety visits and provide blood samples to measure AD biomarkers at weeks 4, 8, 26 and 39. All cognitive assessments are repeated at week 26. The last study visit will be at week 52, when all baseline measurements will be repeated. The primary end point is the 1-year change in tau PET signal. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the West Midlands-Edgbaston Research Ethics Committee (22/WM/0013). The results of the study will be disseminated through scientific presentations and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN71283871.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open

Publication Date





dementia, nuclear medicine, protocols & guidelines, Humans, Glucagon-Like Peptides, Double-Blind Method, Alzheimer Disease, Positron-Emission Tomography, United Kingdom, Administration, Oral, Male, Middle Aged, Female, tau Proteins, Aged, Brain, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic