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Background: Detection of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) involves integration of multiple imaging and clinical features which are often discordant or indeterminate. Objectives: The authors applied artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze a single apical 4-chamber transthoracic echocardiogram video clip to detect HFpEF. Methods: A 3-dimensional convolutional neural network was developed and trained on apical 4-chamber video clips to classify patients with HFpEF (diagnosis of heart failure, ejection fraction ≥50%, and echocardiographic evidence of increased filling pressure; cases) vs without HFpEF (ejection fraction ≥50%, no diagnosis of heart failure, normal filling pressure; controls). Model outputs were classified as HFpEF, no HFpEF, or nondiagnostic (high uncertainty). Performance was assessed in an independent multisite data set and compared to previously validated clinical scores. Results: Training and validation included 2,971 cases and 3,785 controls (validation holdout, 16.8% patients), and demonstrated excellent discrimination (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.97 [95% CI: 0.96-0.97] and 0.95 [95% CI: 0.93-0.96] in training and validation, respectively). In independent testing (646 cases, 638 controls), 94 (7.3%) were nondiagnostic; sensitivity (87.8%; 95% CI: 84.5%-90.9%) and specificity (81.9%; 95% CI: 78.2%-85.6%) were maintained in clinically relevant subgroups, with high repeatability and reproducibility. Of 701 and 776 indeterminate outputs from the Heart Failure Association-Pretest Assessment, Echocardiographic and Natriuretic Peptide Score, Functional Testing (HFA-PEFF), and Final Etiology and Heavy, Hypertensive, Atrial Fibrillation, Pulmonary Hypertension, Elder, and Filling Pressure (H2FPEF) scores, the AI HFpEF model correctly reclassified 73.5% and 73.6%, respectively. During follow-up (median: 2.3 [IQR: 0.5-5.6] years), 444 (34.6%) patients died; mortality was higher in patients classified as HFpEF by AI (HR: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.5-2.4]). Conclusions: An AI HFpEF model based on a single, routinely acquired echocardiographic video demonstrated excellent discrimination of patients with vs without HFpEF, more often than clinical scores, and identified patients with higher mortality.

Original publication




Journal article


JACC: Advances

Publication Date